Effects of Marine Debris Caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011
  • Acronym: ADRIFT
  • Term: April 2014 - March 2017
  • Co-Chairs:
    Thomas Therriault (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada)
    Hideaki Maki (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan)
    Nancy Wallace (NOAA Marine Debris Program, USA)
Description

The Great Tōhoku Earthquake, or Great East Japan Earthquake, with magnitude 9.0, struck off the coast of Japan on March 11, 2011, and triggered a massive tsunami. This event was a natural disaster of staggering proportions, causing loss of human life, property destruction and environmental damage.

With the tsunami, about 5 million tons of debris swept from the land and coastal systems into the ocean. The Government of Japan estimates that 70% of that debris sank close to shore, leaving 1.5 million tons floating in the North Pacific with the potential to arrive on North American and Hawaiian coastlines.

The first confirmed instances of Japanese tsunami debris washing up on the shores of North America occurred in March 2012. Since then, over 1600 debris sightings have been reported, of which 60 pieces could be confirmed as Japanese-origin tsunami debris. This includes two large concrete docks, originally from Misawa, Japan, that were found on beaches in Oregon and Washington (with a number of non-native species attached) and more than 200 small boats, many of which have been confirmed as lost during the tsunami. The North American coast already endures marine debris from terrestrial and aquatic sources, but there may be additional impacts from the increase in abundance and differing debris types due to the tsunami.

Aside from the impacts of additional marine debris itself, there is the possibility of debris carrying coastal Japanese species to North American coasts. The two docks together had hundreds of Japanese species and tens of thousands of individuals attached, alive, and some reproductively active. Many of the species were not known previously from North America and have the potential to invade coastal ecosystems. For example, species of sea stars, hydroid , mussels and fish collected from tsunami debris have been confirmed as non-native to the Pacific coast of North America.

As a result of generous funding from the Government of Japan, through its Ministry of the Environment (MoE), PICES has initiated a new project to investigate the impact of tsunami-generated marine debris. The goal of Project ADRIFT (Assessing the Debris-Related Impact of Tsunami) is to assess and forecast the effects of this debris, especially those related to non-indigenous species (NIS) and potentially invasive species on ecosystem structure and function, the coastlines, and communities of the west coast of North America and Hawaii, and to suggest research and management actions to mitigate any impacts.

This 3-year effort (April 2014 - March 2017) is directed by a Project Science Team (PST) made up of researchers from Canada, Japan, the United States and the PICES Secretariat, and is co-chaired by Thomas Therriault (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada), Hideaki Maki (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan) and Nancy Wallace (NOAA Marine Debris Program, USA).

Project Goal

The project focuses on three main areas of research:

  1. Surveillance and monitoring of tsunami-generated marine debris landfall;
  2. Modeling movement of marine debris in the North Pacific; and
  3. Risk (including potential impacts) from invasive species to coastal ecosystems.
Surveillance and monitoring

The surveillance team continues its surveillance activities for British Columbia, Canada and began surveillance for Hawaii. The Hawaiian Islands receive a large amount of baseline marine debris and the unique flora and fauna of the region makes the potential introduction of invasive species a concern for state authorities. In Year 2, high resolution aerial surveys were conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands and analysis of the resulting images completed. The results highlight some islands for increased mitigation and monitoring efforts and shows which shorelines accumulate large amounts of debris. Re-analysis of the shoreline monitoring data with the additional 2015 data showed a sharp increase in the influx of debris items for 2015. The webcam system installed at a site in Oregon continues to be monitored and the images have been analysed. The temporal dynamics of debris on coastal beaches have found to be strongly related to onshore winds and coastal upwelling.

Modeling Movement of Tsunami Debris

The modeling group refined their models in Year 2 using observations from the monitoring and surveillance teams. The optimized models successfully reproduce the main peaks of JTMD arrivals in 2012-2015 and predict much of the remaining floating debris is entrained in the Pacific gyre and may continue to arrive in the future. The models were then used to estimate the trajectories of individual debris items, such as the large floating docks, and the accompanying environmental conditions that the associated biota would have experienced during the journey

Figure: Probable pathways and probable trajectories of Misawas docks found in a) Oregon, 4 June 2012, b) north of Molokai 18 September 2012 and c) Washington 18 December 2012. d) Probable pathway of Molokai dock after Hawaiian sighting. Image provided by Nikolai Maximenko, University of Hawaii.

Risk of Invasive Species

In Year 2, the collection and analysis of biota associated with tsunami debris items continues. To date, over 500 samples of JTMD have been acquired from Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and the Hawaiian Islands, and have either been analyzed or are in the process of being studied. This work consists in large part of the identification of the species on the debris, utilizing both morphological and genetic approaches, as well as the screening of mussels for the presence of endoparasites. The majority of items intercepted and analyzed are from Washington, Oregon, and the Hawaiian Islands, and include vessels, post-and-beam lumber, floats (buoys), pallets, baskets, and a wide variety of additional objects.

Identification of species by taxonmic experts continues, with 58 scientists from Japan, China, Russia, Singapore, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Australia, Norway, and Germany engaged in the research. Both morphological and genetic analyses remain in progress. Overall, 352 Japanese species have been identified as surviving transoceanic rafting, including 80 species of algae. 77% of the invertebrate diversity is represented by 4 major phyla (Bryozoa, 69 species; Mollusca, 55; Crustacea, 54; Annelida, 37). In Year 2, JTMD items continued to arrive on North American and Hawaiian shorelines. JTMD objects recovered in March 2016 included new Japanese species such as the sea anemones Anthopleura asiatica and Diadumene lineata, not observed in previous years. The continued recoveries of new objects and new drift species indicate that quantities of JTMD with associated Japanese species remain in the North Pacific Ocean and will continue to arrive.

The risk assessment team has begun to build upon and incorporate the results of the modeling, monitoring and biodiversity research. Two workshops were held in Year 2 to develop a risk assessment framework to evaluate the risk of tsunami debris as a vector of invasive species. The risk of individual species will be evaluated using a database of life history traits, characteristics and invasion histories we compiled for all species associated with tsunami debris. A risk assessment screening tool will be applied to each species in Year 2 and the gathered information made available in an online resource.

Figure: Haplotype distribution and spanning network tree for the JTMD brown algal species Petalonia fascia. Image provided by Hiroshi Kawai, Kobe University

Research Activities

Research Activities Funded in Year 2

Surveillance and Monitoring

Hawaiian Islands Marine Debris Aerial Imagery Surveys
Principal Investigator: Brian Neilson (Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources)

Webcam monitoring in the research project “Effect of Marine Debris Caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011” - Year 2
Principal Investigator: Atsuhiko Isobe (Kyushu University)

Modeling

Modeling by Japan Group in the PICES-Moe Project
Principal Investigator: Masafumi Kamachi (JMA/MRI)

Modeling studies in support of research on impact of alien species transported by marine debris from the 2011 Great Tohoku Tsunami in Japan (Year 2)
Principal Investigator: Nikolai Maximenko (University of Hawaii)

Risk from Invasion

Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD) and Alien Species Invasions: PICES Year 2: Continued Interception of Non-Native Species on JTMD and Detection in North America to Understand Invasion Risk
Principal Investigators: James T. Carlton (Williams College), John W. Chapman (Oregon State University), Jonathan Geller (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories), Gregory Ruiz (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center)

Marine Algae arriving on JTMD (Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris) and their invasion threat to the coasts of Oregon and Washington, USA, Year 2.
Principal Investigator: Gayle I. Hansen (Oregon State University)

Development of life history database for Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD) biota
Principal Investigator: Jessica Miller (Oregon State University)

Development of life history database for JMTD-associated NIS
Principal Investigator: Michio Otani (Osaka Museum of Natural History)

Surveillance, Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Marine Debris from the 2011 Great Tohoku Tsunami in Japan
Principal Investigator: Cathryn Clarke Murray (PICES)

Meetings and Events
  • Fourth Project Co-Chairmen Meeting (October 16, 2015, Qingdao, China; in conjunction with the 2015 PICES Annual Meeting)

  • Third Project Science Team Meeting (February 22-26, 2016, Tokyo, Japan)

  • Third Project Co-Chairmen Meeting (May 11-12, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA)

  • Second Project Science Team Meeting (March 16-18, 2015, Honolulu, HI, USA)

  • Second Project Co-Chairmen Meeting (February 25-26, 2015, Sidney, BC, Canada)

  • First Project Co-Chairmen Meeting (October 17, 2014, Yeosu, Korea; in conjunction with the 2014 PICES Annual Meeting)

  • First Project Science Team Meeting (July 30 – August 1, 2014, Seattle, WA, USA)
  •  


Fourth Project Co-Chairmen Meeting, Qingdao, China, 2015


Third Project Science Team Meeting , Tokyo, Japan, 2016


'Second Project Co-Chairmen Meeting, Sidney, BC, Canada, 2015


Second Science Team Meeting, Honolulu, HI, USA, 2015


First Co-Chairmen Meeting, Yeosu, Korea, 2014


First Project Science Team Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA, 2014

Products
Annual Progress Reports
Progress Report, Year 2 (Apr. 2015 - Mar. 2016)
Progress Report, Year 1 (Apr. 2014 - Mar. 2015)
Annual Financial Reports
Financial Report, Year 2 (Apr. 2015 - Mar. 2016)
Financial Report, Year 1 (Apr. 2014 - Mar. 2015)
Project Science Team Meeting
2nd Project Science Team Meeting Report (March 2015)
1st Project Science Team Meeting Report (August 2014)
PICES Press

Winter 2016, Vol 24, No. 1
The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis on Japanese tsunami marine debris: A potential model species to characterize a novel transport vector.

Summer 2015, Vol. 23, No. 2
Modeling the drift of marine debris generated by the 2011 tsunami in Japan

Summer 2015, Vol. 23, No. 2

The impact of Japanese tsunami debris on North America

Others

Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris Aerial Imagery Analysis and GIS Support in the Main Hawaiian Islands (April, 2016)

Special Seminar for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA), Silver Spring, Maryland, USA (May 11, 2015)
H.  Maki, T. Therriault, N. Wallace, A. Bychkov and C. Clarke Murray. “The Effects of Marine Debris Caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011” [download]

Poster at the 9th International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions (January 19-21, 2016, Sydney, Australia)
Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011 [download]

Poster at the 2nd International Ocean Research Conference (November 17-21, 2014, Barcelona, Spain) [download]

This poster was selected as one of the best 10 posters (among more than 250) presented during the conference, and now sails around the world on board of IMOCA boats, One Planet, One Ocean – Pharmaton, participating in the 3rd Barcelona World Race.
http://www.barcelonaworldrace.org/en/teams/one-planet-one-ocean-pharmaton

Special Issues

Call for Papers:
Special issue of Marine Pollution Bulletin
We invite presenters and participants attending the upcoming Annual Meeting of the North Pacific Marine Science Organization to submit manuscripts to a planned Special Issue in the international scientific journal Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Expressions of interest are due November 1, 2016, and manuscripts must be submitted by February 1, 2017. Submissions of relevant manuscripts from colleagues outside the topic session are also encouraged.
Please distribute to those who may be interested.

Guest editor:
Dr. Cathryn Clarke Murray,
North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES),
Email: cmurray@pices.int
Phone +1 250-363-6911

Useful Links

Headquarters for Ocean Policy, Government of Japan [Link]
Action of Japan to the drifting matters washed out by the March 11 Earthquake (so-called '3.11 Tsunami Debris')

NOAA Marine Debris Program [Link]

International Pacific Research Center: Marine and Tsunami Debris [Link]

Oregon State University [Link]

Mystic-Williams College [Link]

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC): Marine Invasions Research Lab [Link]

State of Alaska DEC Japan Tsunami Debris Survey [Link]

Webcam images [Link]

Media and News

The Clam that Sank A Thousand Ships - Dec 5, 2016
Hakai Magazine [Link]

Photo Data Supports A Variety of Activities - July 19, 2016
DataBC - Blog [Link]

BC coast to see historic cleanup of marine debris as Japanese tsunami money runs out â€" July 20, 2016
Vancouver Sun [Link]

More marine debris hitting Niihau than any other isle - June 1, 2016
Honolulu Star-Advertiser [Link]

Aerial surveys document ocean debris around Hawaii - May 31, 2016
ABC News [Link]

Debris peppered with plastic - June 1, 2016
The Garden Island [Link]

Taking stock of marine debris; Survey finds 2,200 pieces on Big Island shores - June 1, 2016
Hawaii Tribune-Herald and West Hawaii [Link]

Aerial survey finds mostly plastic, limited tsunami marine debris in Hawaii - May 31, 2016
KHON2 Video [Link], Text [Link]

DLNR Conducts 1st Aerial Survey of Marine Debris - June 1, 2016
Hawaii Public Radio [Link]

Plastic Dominates Hawaii Marine Debris, Survey Shows - May 31, 2016
Big Island Video News [Link]

Statewide Survey of Marine Debris Shows Plastic is Most Prevalent: Aerial Survey Targeted At Japan Tsunami Marine Debris
Hawaii DLNR (Department of Land and Natural Resources) Video news release [Link]

Atsuhiko Isobe. Remote monitoring of marine debris. Hatfield Marine Science Center Seminar, Auditorium, 21 March 2016. Hosted by Oregon State University and Surfrider Foundation. [Link]

Japan tsunami marine debris: A look back five years later - 11 March, 2016
By: Nancy Wallace, director of the NOAA Marine Debris Program, Project Co-Chair
[Link]

Jim Carlton, The 2011 Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris Field: Origins and Biodiversity
February 24, 2016, Sessile Organisms Society Seminar, Tokyo, Japan

Cathryn Clarke Murray. Art, Aliens, and Radiation. Vancouver Aquarium Public Event
March 7, 2016, Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre, Vancouver, Canada
[Link]

Marine life taken global by tsunami trash - Wednesday 30 March 2016
Radio New Zealand. Nine to Noon.
[Link]

How the Japanese tsunami sent marine invaders across the ocean - and why you should be worried. By Emma Johnston and Jim Carlton - January 17, 2016
The Conversation [Link]

Strangers on the Shore by Larry Pynn - October 21, 2015
Hakai Magazine [Link]

Mountains of debris from the Japanese tsunami have floated to the West Coast - 5 Aug 2015
Washington Post [Link]

Alaska Starts Cleaning Up Debris From Japan Spread by 2011 Tsunami - 12 July 2015
The New York Times [Link]

Japanese boat pieces, possible tsunami debris, to be removed – 28 April 2015
Honolulu Star-Advertiser [Link]

Boat likely washed away in 2011 tsunami washes up on Oahu beach; bins found on other islands – 26 April 2015
Greenfield Daily Reporter [Link]

More Japan Tsunami Debris Washes Up on Island Shores – 26 April 2015
Maui Now [Link]

Japan Tsunami Debris Travels to Hawai'i – 24 April 2015
Big Island Now [Link]

Suspected tsunami debris removed from beach – 24 April 2015
Honolulu Star-Advertiser [Link]

State confirms vessel found off East Oahu is tsunami debris – 24 April 2015
KHON2 [Link]

Fish found in suspected tsunami debris boat quarantined – 17 April 2015
Yahoo News [Link]

Fish found in suspected tsunami debris boat... 17 April 2015
durhamregion.com [Link]

Boat remains, thought to be Japanese tsunami debris, deliver Asian fish to Oregon Coast – 15 April 2015
OregonLive.com [Link]

Fish found in suspected tsunami debris boat... – 17 April 2015
Waterloo Record [Link]

Tsunami Boat Has Oregon Coast Officials on Lookout for Invasive Algae – 14 April 2015
Oregon Coast Beach Connection [Link]

Debris believed from Japan 2011 tsunami found along Oregon coast – 12 April 2015
Examiner.com [Link]

Tree on Wash. coast likely Japanese tsunami debris – 7 April 2015
kgw.com [Link]

New Asian 'Tsunami Fish' Causes a Stir with Oregon Coast Scientists – 2 March 2015
Oregon Coast Beach Connection [Link]

Fish native to Japanese water found in Oregon crab pot – 26 Feb 2015
kgw.com [Link]

Japanese tsunami debris bring foreign flora and fauna to US shores. 19 Feb 2015
Monterey County Weekly [Link]

Where the world ends up when the ocean spits it out – 28 January 2015. Juneau Empire.com
[Link]

Tsunami Debris Still Arriving – 24 January 2015. The Garden Island.
[Link]

Japanese Researchers Visit Oregon for Marine Debris Project – 14 January 2015. Surfrider Foundation blog.
[Link]

After Long, Cold Trip Across Pacific on Tsunami Debris, Sea Creatures Find Little Warmth – 12 January 2015. Wall Street Journal
[Link]

Invasive mussels land on B.C. coast with Japan tsunami boat – 07 October 2013
[Link]

Aerial survey reveals marine, tsunami debris widespread across Alaska coast – 05 February 2013 [Link]

Storm pounding West Coast will bring more tsunami debris – 12 December 2014
[Link]

Invasive species hitchhiking to west coast on tsunami debris – 08 March 2013
[Link]

Tsunami triggers invasion concerns – 06 March 2013
[Link]

America threatened by sea species hitching a ride on tsunami debris – 14 October 2012 – The Telegraph [Link]

Desperate scramble to remove 'toxic' seaweed reaching U.S. shore on tsunami debris – 10 June 2012
[Link]

Japan Tsunami Debris: Invasive Species Ride Debris To US Shore – 09 June 2012
[Link]

As Japan debris washes up in the US, scientists fear break in natural order – 09 June 2012 [Link]
Project Science Team Members
Alexander Bychkov (ex-officio)
PICES Secretariat
9860 W. Saanich Road
Sidney, BC, Canada
Phone: (1-250) 363-6346
Email: bychkov@pices.int
Patrick Cummins
Institute of Ocean Sciences
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
9860 W. Saanich Road
Sidney, BC, Canada
Phone: (1-250) 363-6553
Email: Patrick.Cummins@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Hideaki Maki (Co-Chairman)
Marine Environment Section
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES)
16-2 Onogawa Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
Phone: (81-29) 850-2394
Email: hidemaki@nies.go.jp
Cathryn Clarke Murray (ex-officio)
PICES Secretariat
9860 W. Saanich Road
Sidney, BC, Canada
Phone: (1-250) 363-6911
Email: cmurray@pices.int
Thomas Therriault (Co-Chairman)
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Pacific Biological Station
3190 Hammond Bay Rd.
Nanaimo , British Columbia, Canada
Phone: (1-250) 756-7394
Fax: (1-250) 756-7138
Email: Thomas.Therriault@dfo-mpo.gc.ca
Nancy Wallace (Co-Chairman)
Marine Debris Program
US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
1305 East West Highway
Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, 20910
Phone: (1-301) 713-2989
Email: Nancy.Wallace@noaa.gov
Amy MacFayden
Emergency Response Division
US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
7600 Sand Point Way
Seattle, WA 98115
Phone: (1-206) 526-6954
Email: Amy.MacFadyen@noaa.gov
Masafumi Kamachi
Center for Earth Information Science and Technology (CEIST)
JAMSTEC
3173-25 Syouwa-Machi,
Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama
236-0001 Japan
Phone +81-45-778-5241
Fax: +81-45-778-5424
email: kamachimasa@jamstec.go.jp
James T. Carlton
Williams College
Williams-Mystic, The Maritime Studies Program
of Williams College and Mystic Seaport
P. O. Box 6000
75 Greenmanville Avenue
Mystic, Connecticut 06355 USA
Phone: (1-860) 572-5359
Email: jcarlton@williams.edu
Atsuhiko Isobe
Kyushu University
6-1 Kasuga-Koen
Kasuga, Japan
Phone: (81-92) 583-7726,
Email: aisobe@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Hiroshi Kawai
Research Center for Inland Seas
Kobe University
1-1 Rokkodai, Nadaku
Kobe , Hyogo
Japan 657-8501
Phone: (81-78) 803-5710
Fax: (81-78) 803-5710
E-mail: kawai@kobe-u.ac.jp

Hideaki Maki (hidemaki@nies.go.jp) is a Senior Researcher at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). He had studied microbial degradation of crude oil in marine environments and conducted some field experiments of crude oil bioremediation. Recently, he has been monitoring water and sediment parameters relevant to hypoxia in Tokyo Bay. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, he has been involved in monitoring hydrocarbons contamination of sediments in the Tohoku coastal sea. Hideaki is the Japanese Co-Chair of the project on “Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011”, funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, and serves as a member of the PICES Marine Environmental Quality committee and Working Group on Emerging Topics in Marine Pollution.

Thomas Therriault (thomas.therriault@dfo-mpo.gc.ca) is a Research Scientist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada working on a variety of invasive species issues. He is the Canadian Co-Chair of the project on “Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011”, funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, and Chairman of PICES Science Board.

Nancy Wallace (nancy.wallace@noaa.gov) is the Director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Debris Program, which is the federal lead for researching, preventing, and reducing the impacts of marine debris in the United States. She is the US Co-Chair of the project on “Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011”, funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, and serves a members of the PICES Working Group on Emerging Topics in Marine Pollution. Nancy has worked on ocean policy related issues for the past decade. Her work includes resource conservation with the National Park Service, developing sustainable catch limits for fisheries off the east coast of the United States and efforts to improve water quality in the Gulf of Mexico.

Alexander Bychkov (ex-officio, bychkov@pices.int) was the Deputy Executive Secretary of PICES from 1996–1999 and the Executive Secretary of the Organization from 1999–2014. He serves now as a Special Projects Coordinator with PICES, and the project on “Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011”, funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, is one of his primary responsibilities.

Cathryn Clarke Murray (ex-officio, cmurray@pices.int) is a Visiting Scientist with PICES on the project “Effects of marine debris caused by the Great Tsunami of 2011”, funded by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan. She is also Adjunct Professor in the Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability at the University of British Columbia. Cathryn has worked with WWF (World Wildlife Fund) - Canada on the cumulative effect of human activities, with Fisheries and Oceans Canada on ecological risk assessment, and studied the spread of invasive species on marine recreational boats.

Researchers
Toshio Furota
Tokyo Bay Ecosystem Research Center,
Toho University
Miyama 2-2-1
Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8510, Japan
Phone +43-496+2728
Email furota@env.sci.toho-u.ac.jp
Gayle I. Hansen
Oregon State University / HMSC-EPA
2111 SE Marine Science Drive
Newport, Oregon, USA, 97365-5260
Phone +1 541-867-5012
Email gaylehansen@q.com
Takami Hideki
Tohoku National Fisheries Research Institute,
Fisheries Research Agency
3-27-5 Shinhama
Shiogama, Miyagi 985-0001, Japan
Phone +81-22-365-9931
Email htakami@affrc.go.jp
Hirofumi Hinata
Ehime University
3 Bunkyo-cho
Matsuyama, Japan
Phone +81-89-927-9835
Email hinata@cee.ehime-u.ac.jp
Shin'ichiro Kako
Kagoshima University
1-21-40, Korimoto
Kagoshima, Japan
Phone +81-99-285-8473
Email kako@oce.kagoshima-u.ac.jp
Tomoya Kataoka
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology,
Tokyo University of Science
2641 Yamasaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan
Email: tkata@rs.tus.ac.jp
Nikolai A. Maximenko
International Pacific Research Center
School of Ocean & Earth Science & Technology
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Phone +1-808-956-2584
Email maximenk@hawaii.edu
Jessica Miller
Oregon State University,
Hatfield Marine Science Center
Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station
2030 SE Marine Science Drive,
Newport, Oregon, USA, 97365
Phone +1 (541) 867-0381
Email Jessica.Miller@oregonstate.edu
Gregory M. Ruiz
Marine Invasion Research Laboratory
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
647 Contees Wharf Road
P.O. Box 28
Edgewater, Maryland, USA 21037
Email ruizg@si.edu
Jonathan B. Geller
Moss Landing Marine Laboratories
8272 Moss Landing Road,
Moss Landing CA 95039, USA
E-mail geller@mlml.calstate.edu
Yoichi Ishikawa (ishikaway@jamstec.go.jp)