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Scientific Program and Structure

S1: Science Board Symposium
How does 30 years of research on changing North Pacific ecosystems inform the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?

Convenors:
Hiroaki Saito (SB)
Vera L. Trainer (SB)
Akash Sastri (BIO)
Xianshi Jin (FIS)
Mitsutaku Makino (HD)
Guangshui Na (MEQ)
Sung Yong Kim (MONITOR)
Emanuele Di Lorenzo (POC)
Jeanette C. Gann (TCODE)
Steven Bograd (FUTURE)
Sukyung Kang (FUTURE)
Igor Shevchenko (Russia)
Motomitsu Takahashi (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

For 29 years, PICES has conducted investigations of North Pacific ecosystems. There has been a significant focus on multidecadal ecological processes and a more recent emphasis on the impacts of changes in the ocean on the human societies that rely on the North Pacific. The FUTURE Science Plan has identified several important science questions about the status and future of North Pacific marine ecosystems. As a result, PICES scientists are well-positioned to contribute to the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. It is now urgent for PICES scientists to identify the most important science questions which must be answered to achieve the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals and to suggest effective ways to answer these questions, mobilizing the coordination within PICES and collaborations with other partners.

We welcome submissions for topic sessions and workshops that address these issues, including : 1) What are the greatest issues of concern regarding the status and health of the North Pacific Ocean, 2) Are there critical science issues for ocean Sustainable Development Goals that PICES is not addressing? and 3) What kind of blueprint is necessary to facilitate the coordinated ocean observation, prediction and ecosystem and social service systems for the North Pacific, so that the diverse interests of PICES significantly contribute to the goals and objectives of the UN Ocean Decade.

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S2: POC
Global warming patterns and multiscale climate variability in the North Pacific

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Jian Ma (China) corresponding
Vladimir Ponomarev (Russia)
Kyong-Hwan Seo (Korea)
Emanuele di Lorenzo (USA)

Invited Speakers:
Shang-Ping Xie (USA)
TBA

In spite of a globally uniform increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, the radiatively forced surface warming is accompanied by significant spatial variations. The warming patterns result from pre-existing climate states and drive robust responses of the tropical hydrological cycle with global-scale feedbacks. Climate variability on multiple timescales would change in global warming accordingly. For instance, interannual variability is overall expected to strengthen in the Pacific Ocean. Monsoon rainfall around the North Pacific is projected to increase and the wet season to lengthen despite a slow-down of the atmospheric circulation. Strong variations among monsoon regions would emerge depending on surface conditions. Interdecadal climate variability modulates the globally averaged surface temperature change with pronounced anomalies in the equatorial and polar Pacific, leading to prolonged periods of enhanced or reduced warming, e.g., the recent global warming hiatus. Advanced global observations, regional simulations, and process-level investigations are essential for improvements in understanding, predicting, and projecting the modes of climate variability, monsoon sensitivity, and energetic fluctuations in and around the warming North Pacific Ocean. Responses of the North Pacific marine ecosystems to changes in both mean climate and its variability are of great concern by the adjacent human societies. Therefore, we call for a topic session about the impacts of global warming patterns on multiscale climate variability in the North Pacific. This session should not only present the latest research progresses to identify the most important science questions, but also discuss the most promising outlooks to suggest effective ways to answer them. Our proposed assembly would also promote national research and international collaboration with domestic and worldwide experts on regional climate and implications for ecosystem changes. The outcome will contribute to the UN Ocean Decade by addressing the question “What are the greatest issues of concern regarding the status and health of the North Pacific Ocean?”

Email S2 Corresponding Convenor
Email S2 Invited Speakers

S3: HD Topic Session
How the studies on human dimensions can contribute to meet the six societal needs of the Decade of Ocean Science?

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Mitsutaku Makino (Japan), corresponding
TBA

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The UN Decade of Ocean Science says that “the Decade will bolster scientific research and innovative technologies to ensure science responds to the needs of society”, and indicates the following six specific needs from the society to the ocean science; 1) A clean ocean where sources of pollution are identified and removed, 2) A healthy and resilient ocean where marine ecosystems are mapped and protected, 3) A predictable ocean where society has the capacity to understand current and future ocean conditions, 4) A safe ocean where people are protected from ocean hazards, 5) A sustainably harvested ocean ensuring the provision of food supply, and 6) A transparent ocean with open access to data, information and technologies. Clearly, each need includes the academic questions/issues closely relating to the human dimensions. For example, what is the “clean” or “healthy” ocean? Who will decide it? What kind of “predictability” or “safety” do we need? How can “transparency” be achieved? Are they different among countries or societies? What is the cross-scale compatibility from the human community level to the Pacific Basin level? How much can the society pay for that?, etc., etc. This Topic Session welcomes studies about these questions/issues. Based on the oral presentations, we will have discussions about how the human dimension researches can link and add values to the natural science research activities to meet above six societal needs. The outcome of this Topic Session is expected to show the direction of PICES HD Committee activities in the next decade.

Email S3 Corresponding Convenor

S4: POC Topic Session
Upper ocean energetics from mesoscale, submesoscale to small-scale turbulence in the North Pacific

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Yisen Zhong (China), corresponding
Bo Qiu (USA)
Sung Yong Kim (Korea)
Yusuke Uchiyama (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The ocean circulation is characterized by turbulence on a wide range of scales from a few centimeters to thousand kilometers. The energy balance is achieved by transferring energy from planetary-scale forcing to microscale dissipation. One of the major efforts that have been made during the recent decades is to understand how the energy is transferred from mesoscale, submesoscale to small-scale turbulence. In particular, a full spectrum of oceanic submesoscale works bridge the gap between mesoscale and small-scale by discovering forward energy cascade at this range. The submesoscale dynamics are most active in the upper ocean. They are spawn in the mesoscale eddies generated by large-scale flow instability, or near the ocean front including plume front in the coastal water. The predictability and sensitivity of the numerical forecast models that include such processes is still unclear. This session invites all studies from mesoscale, submesoscale to small-scale (including surface/internal waves, boundary layer processes, etc) that contribute to the understanding of energy cascade in the PICES region as well as their applications in the ocean prediction system. We also welcome research about the impact of those processes on the transport of heat, carbon or other biologically or climatically important tracers in the upper ocean.

Email S4 Corresponding Convenor

S5: BIO/POC Topic Session
Atmospheric nutrient deposition and microbial community responses, and predictions for the future in the North Pacific Ocean

Co-sponsor: ICES

Duration:
1/2 day

Convenors:
Jun Nishioka (Japan), corresponding
Guiling Zhang (China)
Huiwang Gao (China)
Kitack Lee (Korea)
Santiago Gassó (USA)
Maurice Levasseur (Canada)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Atmospheric deposition is an important nutrient source for marine ecosystems, with consequences for local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles, as well as the climate system. This session focuses on natural and anthropogenic atmospheric nutrient inputs to the North Pacific Ocean. Microbial communities respond to changing atmospheric inputs, which may result in significant effects on the marine carbon and nitrogen budgets, as well as on atmospheric carbon dioxide uptake. Key questions to be addressed within this theme are: How do biogeochemical and ecological processes interact in response to natural and anthropogenic material input from the atmosphere across costal and open ocean regions? How do global warming, ocean acidification, and other anthropogenic stressors synergistically alter the uptake of atmospheric nutrients and metals by marine biota in different oceanic regions? What is the prognosis for the future? We welcome new interdisciplinary presentations and active discussions on physical, chemical, and biological sciences both from the ocean and atmospheric fields in this session.

Email S5 Corresponding Convenor

S6: FIS/POC Topic Session
Environmental variability and small pelagic fishes in the North Pacific: exploring mechanistic and pragmatic methods for integrating ecosystem considerations into assessment and management

Co-sponsor: NPFC

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Chris Rooper (Canada), corresponding
Bai Li (USA)
Vladimir Kulik (Russia)
Toshihide Kitakado (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Small pelagic fish species are a key component of North Pacific ecosystems. They are a prey species for large bodied fishes, marine mammals and birds and an important predator of zooplankton and phytoplankton production. In addition, there are substantial commercial fisheries that exploit small pelagic species. Small pelagics are often short-lived and respond strongly to environmental changes. This makes these species particularly difficult to manage, as changes in productivity caused by environmental changes can precede management responses. This also creates an opportunity, in that environmental changes can have impacts on the species distribution and abundance over shortened time scales that are relatively easily detected. For example, Pacific Saury is a species with a 2-year life cycle, with distribution and abundance known to be strongly correlated to temperature and ocean conditions. Abundance and productivity are likely to change over very short time scales. The species also supports a large multi-national commercial fishery in international waters. However, the linkages to environmental conditions are not parameterized in the existing stock assessment or management strategy. This proposed session will focus on methods to incorporate the environment into stock assessment and management of small pelagics. We will solicit contributions under three broad categories, 1) contributions that hypothesize and apply mechanistic approaches to relating growth, recruitment and productivity to environmental changes in the North Pacific Ocean, 2) methods for monitoring and predicting ocean conditions that have implications for population status and can assist in projecting future changes in the abundance of small pelagic fishes and 3) examination of environmental relationships that can contribute to understanding the implications for management measures such as biological reference points and harvest control rules.

Email S6 Corresponding Convenor

S7: FUTURE Topic Session
Managing for pathways of resilience in a changing climate: recent examples and emerging approaches

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Kirstin Holsman (USA), corresponding
Xiujuan Shan (China)
Jennifer Boldt (Canada)
Mary Hunsicker (USA)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Climate change and compounding anthropogenic pressures pose a risk to marine social-ecological systems. Of increasing concern is the potential for systems to rapidly shift (often irreversibly) to new states in response to pressures. In some cases, such shifts can occur abruptly without much warning, despite years of mounting pressure and apparent system resilience. These nonlinear inflection points in pressure-response relationship, -- i.e. “tipping points”--, are defined by the IPCC SR15 as “critical thresholds in a system that, when exceeded, can lead to a significant change in the state of the system, often with an understanding that the change is irreversible.” Identifying singular or compound, nonlinear, or contextual tipping points is of paramount importance to the IPCC as the likelihood of crossing tipping points increases with atmospheric carbon, climate instability, and ecological sensitivity, posing a significant risk for ecological and human wellbeing. Tools and methods for managing systems prone to tipping points are important for national, regional, and local resource management and climate adaptation. While identifying tipping points is challenging, there are multiple recent approaches that advance this objective, especially in terms of multivariate tipping points. We propose a topic session that will 1) explore emergent tools and approaches for identifying multivariate thresholds and tipping points, 2) explore existing and potential social and ecological tipping points and responses, and 3) review approaches for managing systems prone to tipping points. This topic session will bring together international experts from oceanographic, ecological, and social sciences to compare methodologies and synergies across systems. Of particular focus will be methods to promote adaptation and resilience to climate change in marine systems increasingly pushed towards extremes and tipping points.

Email S7 Corresponding Convenor

S8: HD Topic Session
Marine Ecosystem Services – Connecting science to decision making

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1/2 day

Convenors:
Sarah Dudas (Canada), corresponding
Jingmei Liu (China)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Marine Ecosystem Services (MES) provide a conceptual framework to understand and communicate the value our coastal and marine ecosystems have from ecological, economic, and sociocultural perspectives. All species and habitats provide ecosystem functions and produce ‘services’. This session seeks to bring together natural scientists (ecologists, biologists, oceanographers, etc.) studying species and habitats that provide these services with the social scientists (economists, anthropologists, sociologists, etc.), policy makers, managers, and others that use the concept of MES to affect decision making. The session will include discussions on ecological, economic, and sociocultural metrics to identify synergies between them. An objective of this session will be to help bridge the gaps in communication and understanding about ecosystem services between natural and social scientists in PICES nations and to illustrate the range of applications studying marine ecosystem services.

Email S8 Session Corresponding Convenor

S9: FUTURE/POC/TCODE Topic Session
Applications of artificial intelligence to advance the understanding of North Pacific ecosystems

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Charles Hannah (Canada), corresponding
Naoki Yoshie (Japan)
Igor Shevchenko (Russia)
Jinkun Yang (China)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning to marine science issues is advancing rapidly. The combination of modern instrumentation with real time delivery, satellite data streams, biogeochemical model output, and shipboard data collection, means that many marine ecosystems are data rich but information poor. AI offers the opportunity to speed up the process of turning data into information that can be used for decision making, but also has advantages over more traditional statistics for detecting patterns and offers the potential to find meaningful ecological relationships between ecosystem state variables for which there is no theoretical framework to connect them. For this session we encourage submissions that use AI for investigating the important drivers/variables in ecological datasets, as well as computer vision applications dealing, for instance, with satellite imagery, acoustics, plankton, and corals/sediment. We invite submissions at all levels of biological organization (individuals to ecosystems), and are particularly interested in studies that integrate different types of observation technologies and data types. We encourage papers focusing on methodological advancements, ecosystem applications and the data management processes required to get ecosystem related data into forms that make it easy to use the new tools. This session is not focused on a particular problem but rather seeks to have a lively session that would help identify more practitioners of these modern tools who are already working on PICES related problems. The proposed science session is an outcome from the successful PICES 2019 Workshop on Application of Machine Learning to Ecosystem Change Issues in the North Pacific. This Science session would continue the process of building an AI community within PICES. This session will contribute to two of the PICES Strategic goals: Goal 4: Advance methods and tools. Machine learning and AI are new tools with enormous potential that should be explored in the PICES context, and Goal 6: Engage with early career scientists to sustain a vibrant and cutting edge PICES scientific community. Big data and AI represent the cutting edge of the process to convert data into information in the modern world, therefore encouraging the development and application of these new tools is one way to attract early career scientists to PICES.

Email S9 Corresponding Convenor

S10: MEQ Topic Session
Impacts of climate change on aquaculture

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Cody Szuwalski (USA), corresponding
Shan Xiujuan (China)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly integral part of global seafood production. In 2016, 80 million tons of seafood was produced via aquaculture and the fraction of total seafood produced by aquaculture (compared to wild-capture fisheries) increased to 47% from 40% in 2011. Expansion and improvements in aquaculture can serve to address Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) #2 (Zero Hunger) and potentially #14 (Life below water). However, a changing climate could impact the ability of aquaculture to contribute towards these goals. We hope to present field, laboratory, and modeling studies that: 1) illustrate the historical impacts of changing environmental conditions on aquaculture, 2) use historically observed relationships between environmental conditions and aquaculture production to project potential futures for aquaculture production under climate change scenarios, and 3) identify and explore relationships between fished and unfished wild populations and cultivated species, particularly under a changing climate. The outcomes of this symposium could be useful in strategic allocation of resources under projected environmental change toward progress of the UN’s SDGs.

Email S10 Corresponding Convenor

S11: HD Topic Session
Using environmental indicators to assess baselines, targets, and risk of plastic pollution in the North Pacific

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Chengjun Sun (China), corresponding
Matthew Savoca (USA)
Sanghee Hong (Korea)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The North Pacific and its marginal seas are heavily polluted with plastics. It is important to develop environmental indicators of plastic pollution to determine baselines, set targets, and project risk to species and ecosystems. The goal of this session is to continue to identify indicators – both biotic and abiotic – of plastic pollution, and to move beyond the development of indicators to determine how we can use indicators to determine baselines in the North Pacific. Environmental indicators will also prove important to project risk from plastics to the ecosystem. Risk may be assessed by the quantity or abundance of plastic particles, or as the concentration of plastic associated pollutants in organismal tissues. Research presented in this topic session will help us elucidate the status and trends of plastic pollution and their environmental impacts in the North Pacific to better allow comparisons to other regions globally. This science-informed approach will allow us to make informed decisions for plastic usage and litter management policies.

Email S11 Corresponding Convenor

S12: FUTURE/POC Topic Session
Predictions of extreme events in the North Pacific and their incorporation into management strategies

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Samantha Siedlecki (USA), corresponding
Ryan Rykaczewski (USA)
Jing-Jia Luo (China)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Marine ecosystems of the North Pacific are susceptible to episodic, extreme events of various types, including marine heatwaves, periods of hypoxia/anoxia or corrosive conditions, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). There is rising concern that these events may become more common and/or severe in the future. Extreme events can have a marked impact on ecosystem resources and societal use of the coast environment with consequences for recreation, human and ecosystem health, aquaculture productivity, and the distribution, composition, and productivity of marine fisheries. While our ability to predict ecosystem changes and societal impacts has improved in recent years with improved understanding of coupled physical, biological, and social dynamics, the episodic nature of extreme events and the rarity at which they have been observed challenge attempts to forecast their occurrence. However, the severe ecological and societal consequences of these extreme events make them desirable targets for predictions that enable proactive management. PICES WG-40 aims to identify, diagnose, and quantify predictable response in North Pacific marine ecosystems that arise from regional and large-scale climate processes. In this session we will seek contributions that highlight advances in the prediction of extreme events (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH, HABs), the characterization or identification of mechanisms responsible for their individual or co-occurrence, and the strategies to incorporate those predictions into management. This topic is relevant to the first three ToR of WG-40, but also to ToR #4 (exploring integration of predictions in the management of ecosystem services), which has received less attention in our previous activities. This proposed session is intended to advance the terms of reference of WG-40 and build on strong momentum from (1) the ECCWO session “From prediction to projection: the role of seasonal to decadal forecasts in a changing climate”, (2) the PICES 2018 session “Ecological responses to variable climate changes and their applicability to ecosystem predictions”, (3) the CLIVAR-PICES 2019 workshop “Towards an integrated approach to understanding ecosystem predictability in the North Pacific,” (4) three PICES-2019 sessions “Marine heat waves in the North Pacific: Predictions and impacts in coastal regions,” “Coastal ocean modelling in the North Pacific,” and “Advances in North Pacific marine prediction”, and (5) a FUTURE-sponsored workshop (W7) on social impacts of extremes at the 2020 PICES annual meeting. Besides PICES-associated meetings, this proposed session also leverages efforts of NOAA’s Marine Prediction Task Force (MPTF) whose lifespan matches that of WG-40 (2017-2020) and whose intent is to improve seasonal forecasts for management of living marine resources. We envision this session being offered in coordination with a FUTURE-sponsored workshop exploring the social impacts of extreme events in the context of the SEES framework.

Email S12 Corresponding Convenor

S13: MEQ Topic Session
Using eDNA to assess and manage non-indigenous species in the North Pacific

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Jeanette Davis (USA), corresponding
Keun-Hyung Choi (Korea)
Thomas Therriault (Canada)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Non-indigenous species (NIS) cause ecological and/or economic harm and are a threat to biodiversity. The spread of aquatic NIS has increased in the last decade due to globalization and other related human activities. Preventing all introductions is not possible, thus early detection is the most valuable cost-effective control and eradication option, yet many species are difficult to detect using traditional survey techniques, especially over large spatial areas. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) as a new and rapidly growing tool to detect, monitor, and quantify species for biodiversity and conservation management is of considerable interest. In comparison to traditional methods, eDNA sampling is more sensitive, less harmful to the environment, cost-effective, safer for both species and field staff, and more targeted for identifying species of interest. Therefore, eDNA is a promising tool for early detection of NIS. However, the effectiveness for this technique across many NIS taxonomic groups and habitat types is unexplored and could have important management implications. This topic session will explore the use of eDNA to detect and assess NIS status in the North Pacific. The goal is to evaluate the landscape of how eDNA monitoring is being applied in the NIS community globally and to share information relevant to management and policy. Since different environments and species will require different sampling standards, there are potential opportunities for lessons learned and shared methodologies for data collection, analyses, and comparison.

Email S13 Corresponding Convenor

S14: FIS Topic Session
Implementing a collaborative, integrated ecosystem high seas survey program to determine climate/ocean mechanisms affecting the productivity and distribution of salmon and associated pelagic fishes across the North Pacific Ocean

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Mark Saunders (NPAFC), corresponding
Hal Batchelder (PICES)
Suam Kim (Pukyong National University, Korea)
Alex Zavolokin (NPFC)
Brian Wells (NMFS)
Motomitsu Takahashi (Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The high-seas pelagic ecosystems spanning the entire North Pacific Ocean north of 33ºN support five species of Pacific salmon and Steelhead trout as well as associated species such as Pacific saury. Salmon spend the majority of their lives in these high-seas ecosystems. While considerable effort by Russian and Japanese scientists has been directed to ecosystem surveys of the western North Pacific Ocean over the past 30 years, the central and eastern North Pacific remain poorly studied. As a result, the scientific community is not well positioned to provide explanation and advice to decision makers regarding the implications of an increasingly uncertain environment where changing marine conditions in the high seas are implicated in reductions in salmon productivity that are having severe social and economic impacts. To begin addressing this gap, the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission (NPAFC) and partners in winter 2019 conducted a high seas expedition in the Gulf of Alaska with scientists from around the Pacific rim. If successful it could provide a template for a broader and potentially on-going pan-Pacific expedition A workshop (W16) at PICES-2019 reviewed the findings to date and found the expedition was a considerable success. There were novel observations of the winter distribution of salmon and the associated ecosystem structure along with the development and application of new technologies. Just as important, the cruise demonstrated the effectiveness of a multi-national collaboration. The expedition findings, while not yet fully analyzed, informed plans for a 2021 expedition of up to five vessels to synoptically survey the full breadth of the North Pacific pelagic ecosystem to a depth of 100m. In addition to the broad synoptic sampling of the oceanography and biota, fine spatial scale studies are being considered to test hypotheses relating to mechanisms regulating the production of salmon. A PICES session is proposed to inform the further development of the 2021 expedition. Researchers from the 2019 expedition will be invited to present recent findings of the 2019 expedition. Experts on life history modelling will be invited to speak on approaches that can combine the results of freshwater, coastal and high-seas ecosystem surveys to generate meaningful advice to managers. Additionally, researchers with expertise in hydroacoustics and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) will be invited to inform the development of fine scale studies to test hypotheses related to the mechanisms affecting winter distribution and productivity.

Email S14 Corresponding Convenor

S15: FIS/POC Topic Session
Species migration and shifts responding to climate change: linking physics, plankton dynamics and fish ecology

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Shin-ichi Ito (Japan), corresponding
Jackie R. King (Canada)
Sukyung Kang (Korea)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Ontogenetic migrations of marine species is one of their more important survival strategies. However, marine species behavior and migration are complex. It is a consequence of genes, physical, chemical and biological environment and their interaction, and perhaps even from learned behavior. Therefore, marine species change their ontogenetic migration routes in response to climate variability. The influence of global climate change is emerging in many places around the Earth and many marine species show distribution shifts as a response to climate changes. It is an urgent task for us to elucidate the mechanism of the species migration and the linkage between physical condition, prey plankton phenology and production, and inter-species interaction. It is essential to enable future projections of marine species shift. Recently, 1) technological advances in bio-logging, otolith chemistry analysis, stable isotope analysis in tissue and amino acids, 2) developments of high resolution models and 4-D ocean hindcasts, 3) availability of high resolution satellite data, have been realized. The ability to study marine species migration responding climate variability and change has been increased. We propose a topic session that involves participation from multiple PICES committees and focuses on marine species migration and shift responding to climate variability ad global climate change. Papers to elucidate linkage between physical condition, prey plankton phenology and production, inter-species interaction, and species migration and shift are welcome.

Email S15 Corresponding Convenor

S16: FUTURE Topic Session
FUTURE Plenary on PICES’ Engagement With the UN Decade of Ocean Science

Duration:
1.5 hours; Wednesday, October 28th, 0900-1030 am

Convenors:
Steven Bograd (USA), corresponding
Sukyung Kang (Korea)
and FUTURE SSC

Format:
3-4 talks on the UN Ocean Decade and FUTURE related activities, followed by an open discussion

Invited Speakers:
TBA

In December 2017, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030; https://oceandecade.org) to “support efforts to reverse the cycle of decline in ocean health and gather ocean stakeholders worldwide behind a common framework that will ensure ocean science can fully support countries in creating improved conditions for sustainable development of the Ocean”. The Decade is designed to “facilitate stronger international cooperation to bolster scientific research and innovative technologies to ensure science responds to the needs of society”:

  • A clean ocean where sources of pollution are identified and removed
  • A healthy and resilient ocean where marine ecosystems are mapped and protected
  • A predictable ocean where society has the capacity to understand current and future ocean conditions
  • A safe ocean where people are protected from ocean hazards
  • A sustainably harvested ocean ensuring the provision of food supply
  • A transparent ocean with open access to data, information and technologies
The FUTURE Science Program, and PICES more generally, shares many of the goals of the Ocean Decade. Furthermore, as the key inter-governmental marine science organization in the North Pacific, PICES has the aspiration and capacity to be the key regional partner of the Ocean Decade. In this session, we will (a) present the goals and planning for the UN Ocean Decade; (b) describe ongoing and planned FUTURE activities to provide the scientific and organizational infrastructure to implement the activities of the Ocean Decade in the North Pacific; and (c) conduct an open discussion for the PICES community to ask questions and provide suggestions for how PICES can most effectively engage with the UN Ocean Decade.

Email S16 Corresponding Convenor

S17: TBA Topic Session
The effect of ocean acidification on harmful algal species growth and toxicity

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1/2 day

Convenors:
William Cochlan (USA), corresponding
Pengbin Wang (China)
Mark L. Wells (USA)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Increasing atmospheric pCO2 over the past few decades has generated measurable decreases in the pH of surface waters in offshore, coastal and upwelling marine regions. This decrease in pH leads to greater carbon availability for plankton photosynthesis, less need for metabolically costly carbon concentrating mechanisms, and changes other aspects of cellular physiology—all changes that may alter the competitive interactions among species of harmful and non-harmful phytoplankton. In addition to altering the growth rates, decreasing pH may influence the cellular toxicity of some HAB species, such as with the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia, and affect the swimming abilities of others, such as the fish-killing raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo, both of which have the potential to substantially amplify HAB impacts. There have been significant advances over the past few years in understanding how ocean acidification influences various aspects of phytoplankton physiology and growth responses, however, there is considerable variation in how HAB species respond to pH change, challenging the ability to project how ocean acidification may influence the frequency or intensity of HABs. The recent PICES Special Publication on Ocean Acidification and Deoxygenation in the North Pacific Ocean provides a framework for identifying regions and times where ocean acidification stress is dynamic and increasing, and the newly established Global Ocean Acidification Observation Network (GOA-ON) is now beginning to incorporate co-observations of biological parameters that include HAB events and indicators. The confluence of these research resources provides new opportunities to study the mechanistic basis for, and outcomes of, ocean acidification-HAB species interactions. This Topic Session welcomes papers that address all aspects of ocean acidification effects on planktonic cellular physiology and HAB species toxicity in laboratory and field-based studies.

Email S17 Corresponding Convenor

BIO Contributed Paper Session

Convenors:
Akash Sastri (Canada)
Wongyu Park (Korea)

The Biological Oceanography Committee (BIO) has a wide range of interests spanning from molecular to global scales. BIO targets all organisms living in the marine environment including bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, micronekton, benthos and marine birds and mammals. In this session, we welcome all papers on biological aspects of marine science in the PICES region. Contributions from early career scientists are especially encouraged.

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FIS Contributed Paper Session

Convenors:
Xianshi Jin (China)
Jackie King (Canada)

This session invites papers addressing general topics in fishery science and fisheries oceanography in the North Pacific and its marginal seas, except those covered by Topic Sessions sponsored by the Fishery Science Committee (FIS).

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HD Contributed Paper Session

Convenors:
Mitsutaku Makino (Japan)
Karen Hunter (Canada)

This session invites papers addressing the promotion, coordination, integration and synthesis of research activities related to the contribution of the social sciences to marine science, and to facilitate discussion among researchers from both the natural and social sciences. We invite abstract submissions on any of these topics.

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MEQ Contributed Paper Session

Convenors:
Guangshui Na (China)
Andrew RS Ross (Canada)

Papers are invited on all aspects of marine environmental quality research in the North Pacific and its marginal seas, except those covered by Topic Sessions sponsored by the Marine Environmental Quality Committee (MEQ).

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POC Contributed Paper Session

Convenors:
Emanuele Di Lorenzo (USA)
Yury I. Zuenko (Russia)

Papers are invited on all aspects of physical oceanography and climate in the North Pacific and its marginal seas, except those covered by Topic Sessions sponsored by the Physical Oceanography and Climate Committee (POC).

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GP: General Poster Session

Convenors:
N/A

Papers that do not fit any other topic sessions / workshops.

W1: MEQ Topic Workshop
The Expansion of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) from lower to higher latitudes

Co-sponsors: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Setsuko Sakamoto (Japan), corresponding
Mark L. Wells (USA)
Natsuko Nakayama (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

High latitude regions are experiencing the fastest rates of climate change, with impacts on marine biodiversity and plankton diversity. The rapid changes in physical and chemical conditions are affecting the biodiversity of plankton communities, which includes the new appearance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). For example, very recent observations show for the first time the appearance of paralytic shellfish toxin containing plankton far north of the Arctic Circle— a condition that would not have been possible with the very short planktonic growing season only two decades earlier. Indeed, northward moving Pacific warm waters are shown to now carry Alexandrium blooms as far north as the Chukchi Sea. The importance of higher latitude regions as sentinels for changes in biodiversity related to future HABs is highlighted in published proceedings from at least two international meetings co-sponsored by PICES, yet there are no organized efforts to develop the research and observational datasets essential to capture the anticipated regime transitions in higher latitude biodiversity and planktonic communities. This international workshop will bring together PICES and non-PICES experts from several nations to present their current findings on the distribution of HABs species and events in higher latitude waters. The morning session will be devoted to presentations on physical, chemical and biological changes, in terms of HAB species, in higher latitude waters. These presentations will provide the framework for the collaborative afternoon discussions summarizing our state of knowledge, identifying the most important information gaps, and charting the near- (5 year) and longer-term (10 year) research priorities. The goal will be to develop a multi-author position paper summarizing the state of current knowledge, identify the key research questions, and to develop a consensus plan on the path forward that will best accelerate our understanding of these rapidly emerging problems.

Email W1 Corresponding Convenor

W2: BIO/FIS Topic Workshop
Can we link zooplankton production to fisheries recruitment?

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Toru Kobari (Japan), corresponding
Hui Liu (USA)
Karyn Suchy (Canada)
Russ Hopcroft (USA)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Sustainability of fisheries requires a better understanding of stock dynamics and resilience to environmental and anthropogenic forcing. Zooplankton play a vital nexus between primary producers and higher level consumers and are thus highly relevant to fisheries production and ecosystem functions. Understanding the impact of trophic relationships on the nutrition of larvae and foraging fishes is a critical step needed to forecast the stock response and resilience to environmental changes. However, limited attention has been paid to the role of zooplankton in sustaining fisheries production, which is largely because routine measurements of secondary production remain rare. This workshop will discuss prospective ways for understanding functional and structural roles of secondary production on fisheries dynamics and production. In particular, we encourage presentations and discussions on research using experimental, observational and modeling approaches linking zooplankton productivity and fish larvae and foraging fishes.

Email W2 Corresponding Convenor

W3:FIS Topic Workshop
Integrating biological research, fisheries science and management of broadly distributed flatfish species across the North Pacific Ocean in the face of climate and environmental variability

Co-sponsor: IPHC

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Josep V. Planas (IPHC, USA), corresponding
Chris Rooper (DFO, Canada)
Naoki Tojo (Hokkaido University, Japan)
Roman Novikov (VNIRO, Russia)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The North Pacific Ocean is a large and productive ecosystem that is characterized by strong interdecadal climate variability. This Ocean basin supports a number of fish species of great ecological, as well as economical, importance. A successful PICES FIS-Workshop, that was co-sponsored by the International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) at the 2019 PICES Annual Meeting, focused on important current topics related to the biology and fishery of Pacific halibut and interacting species by bringing together researchers, scientists and managers from countries that are invested in this resource. An important outcome of this workshop was the need to increase the application of integrative approaches to improve our understanding of the biology and management of widely-distributed species, such as Pacific halibut, in the North Pacific Ocean, requiring a high level of cooperation at the international level. Therefore, to achieve these goals and as a step forward in addressing key areas of cooperation between PICES and IPHC as described in the recently signed MoU between the two organizations, we propose a workshop that focuses on addressing emerging issues in key flatfish species with broad distributions across the entire North Pacific Ocean. Specifically, this workshop intends to 1) improve the sharing of information on fishing efforts and management strategies across the North Pacific Ocean, and to 2) promote international collaborative studies to improve our knowledge on movement of flatfish populations and potential distribution changes of flatfish and other interacting species in the face of climate variability. This workshop may lead to development of a proposal for a joint IPHC-PICES Study Group with terms of reference that address these issues.

Email W3 Corresponding Convenor

W4: SB Topic Workshop
How does the Pacific Arctic gateway affect the marine system in the Central Arctic Ocean (CAO)?

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
0.5 day

Convenors:
Sei-Ichi Saitoh (Japan), corresponding
Hyoung-Chul Shin (Korea)
Guangshui Na (China)
Lisa Eisner (USA)
Libby Logerwell (USA)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

The Central Arctic Ocean (CAO) is in rapid transition, largely driven by North Pacific environmental change, allowing it to become accessible to a range of activities. Rapid loss of sea ice cover has opened up the CAO for potential fishing opportunities. The agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean (CAO) has been signed and is expected to enter into force soon. Scientific research in the CAO to inform and support policy decisions, however, remains scarce in contrast to an abundance of research in the neighboring North Pacific Ocean. With substantial science and policy challenges occurring in the Arctic, an integrated ecosystem assessment of the CAO is a priority task. PICES joined forces with ICES and PAME for such an assessment by forming the WGICA/WG 39 with its mission period ending 2021. The goals of the Pacific Arctic Gateway activity in the WGICA are to describe the status and trends of ecosystem components in the region and the connection of these parameters to the Central Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Arctic Gateway has experienced rapid environmental change in recent years due to reduced sea ice extent and seawater warming that can impact shelf-basin exchange of water mass components and biological taxa into the offshore Arctic basin. The main objective for the workshop is to describe and discuss ecosystem processes in the Pacific Arctic Gateway and how physical and biological components extend into the CAO, with spatial focus on the outer shelf/slope regions to the basin.

Email W4 Corresponding Convenor

W5: FIS Topic Workshop
Pelagic and forage species – Predicting response and evaluating resiliency to environmental variability

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Matthew Baker (USA), corresponding
Elizabeth Siddon (USA)
Hui Liu (USA)
Brian Hunt (Canada)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Climate and environmental variability influence pelagic ecosystems with direct and indirect impacts on pelagic and forage fish populations. These species are particularly responsive to shifts in the physical environmental and the production and phenology of biological production at lower trophic levels. Forage fish are also the link between planktonic food webs and higher trophic levels in the global ocean. Despite their critical role in North Pacific ecosystems, forage fish have remained understudied due to the majority of research resources and effort being focused on the predatory species that they support. This knowledge gap is increasingly pressing as the North Pacific advances into new climate and ocean modes. We propose to host a workshop that builds on the 2018 Session in Yokohama, Japan and related collaborations to share results on trends in pelagic and forage fishes in the North Pacific PICES region, including work using experimental, observational and modeling approaches. We intend to use the North Pacific as a case study for global response to warming and determine the attributes important in understanding how different populations respond in similar or divergent ways to common drivers. We also aim to examine two overarching themes (1) adaptation/resiliency and (2) forecasting to better define our 'current state of knowledge' and use this workshop to further identify data gaps, research needs, and useful tools and models to further research in this area. This workshop aims to bring together forage fish researchers from around the North Pacific. The workshop will use regional presentations as a springboard for discussion on common ecosystem drivers and similarities / dissimilarities among regions. Priority data gaps will be ranked as a step towards focusing direction for short and long-term research objectives.

Email W5 Corresponding Convenor

W6: FIS Topic Workshop
Research priorities for understanding the population dynamics of small pelagic fish in the North Pacific

Co-sponsors: ICES, IOC, NPFC

Duration:
0.5 day

Convenors:
Ryan Rykaczewski (USA), corresponding
Akinori Takasuka (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Small pelagic fish (SPF) are critical components of marine ecosystems in the North Pacific and in various systems worldwide. These fish are the target of major commercial fisheries that provide necessary diets for the world’s rapidly expanding aquaculture operations. SPF are also vital to the diets of higher predators, playing a role in the transfer of energy and organic matter from zooplankton to higher predators. However, another common characteristic of SPF populations is their high degree of temporal variability, with biomasses that can fluctuate by several orders of magnitude at decadal or multidecadal timescales. These fluctuations have been attributed to changes in climate and ocean properties, shifts in distribution or migration behavior, various ways of interspecific interactions, and variable sensitivity to commercial harvesting. The need for a forum to synthesize new findings and coordinate multidisciplinary research efforts is the motivation for a new joint ICES/PICES working group on SPF. In this workshop, we intend to discuss and prioritize research questions concerning the dynamics of SPF populations in the North Pacific. Participants will be encouraged to highlight key gaps in our understanding and suggest actionable research activities that can be shared with the broader ICES, PICES, and other international communities.

Email W6 Corresponding Convenor

W7: FUTURE/POC Topic Workshop
The social-ecological-environmental dynamics of climate extremes in Pacific coastal systems

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
2 days

Convenors:
Jennifer Jackson (Canada), corresponding
Tetjana Ross (Canada)
Tom Okey (Canada)
Emanuele DI Lorenzo (USA)
Thomas Therriault (Canada)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Over the last 5-10 years the North Pacific has experienced a sequence of extreme events associated with the consecutive occurrence of land and marine heatwaves, acidification and hypoxia events, and tropical storms. While there is a growing level of certainty that these extremes will become more frequent and intensify, their impacts on the social-ecological-environmental dynamics of coastal communities around the Pacific rim remain uncertain. Yet these communities are most vulnerable and many aim to develop and implement effective resilient and adaptation strategies. In 2019, the FUTURE science program published a Social-Ecological-Environmental System (SEES) framework to address climate change impacts in the North Pacific. Building on this framework, and recognizing how this framework is useful to understand, predict, and plan the response of coastal communities to effects of ocean climate extremes, we propose a workshop in order whose goals are two-fold. The first goal is to gain broader understanding of the physical, biological, and chemical processes impacted by marine heatwaves in coastal regions. The second goal is to work towards applying the SEES framework to the development of the adaptation strategies in coastal communities. The specific objectives and components of this workshop are: 1) to review current progress on understanding and modeling the SEES dynamics in coastal systems around the Pacific rim. (Invited Keynotes and Contributed Talks, Day 1); 2) to develop case studies that use the SEES narrative approach developed by FUTURE to understand and describe the impact of selected coastal extremes. (e.g. 2019 marine heatwave in Alaska, 2019 tropical storm in Japan, ocean acidification extremes, strong hypoxia events, and others). (Four breakout group discussions and reporting, one group per case study, Day 1); 3) to explore technical advances that allow the collection and modeling of SEES data (e.g. LEO Network, machine learning approaches, mathematical modeling of systems maps, data informatics, etc.) to understand and predict the response of coastal SEES to extreme events and climate variability. (Invited Technical Talks and Presentations, Day 2); and 4) to draft Terms of Reference (TORs) for a PICES Working Group on Climate Extremes and Coastal Social-Ecological-Environmental Systems (WG-SEES) (Group discussion, Day 2).

Email W7 Corresponding Convenor

W8: BIO/MEQ Topic Workshop
Sea turtles and environmental stressors in the North Pacific

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Taewon Kim (Korea), corresponding
George Balazs (USA)
Hideaki Nishizawa (Japan)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

Most sea turtles are endangered species designated by IUCN. They are now receiving threats from multiple stressors induced by anthropogenic activities such as climate change, pollution and plastic trash. In 2019, PICES special project on the sea turtle was launched to elucidate migration routes and threats to sea turtles in North Pacific areas through collaboration of scientists of PICES member countries. In this workshop, we encourage scientists who are studying or interested in sea turtles to participate in discussions of issues such as habitat use and migration of sea turtles influenced by climate changes or human activities, and the magnitude of threats of plastic debris to sea turtles.

Email W8 Corresponding Convenor

W9: FUTURE Topic Workshop
Building a PICES early career professional network

Co-sponsor: TBA

Duration:
1 day

Convenors:
Erin Satterthwaite (USA), corresponding
Aoi Sugimoto (Japan)
Pengbin Wang (China)

Invited Speakers:
TBA

For several years, PICES has provided support for the participation of early career scientists in workshops and symposia and has recognized excellence of presentations by early career scientists at its annual meetings. It has been suggested that early career scientists should help PICES play a leading role in the UN Decade of the Ocean by bringing fresh ideas to the next chapter of scientific discovery. This workshop will explore the possibility of formalizing the role of early career scientists in PICES, including strategies for revitalizing communications, outreach, and engagement with other international organizations. We propose a workshop that will bring together the next generation of scientists to discuss the formalization of a PICES early career scientist group (e.g., study group or working group). This workshop will include an “ice breaker” activity, conversations with PICES mentors, and development of a mission and vision for a proposed early career scientist group.

Email W9 Corresponding Convenor
Important Dates
TBA
Deadlines
  1. Early registration
  2. Abstract submission
  3. Financial support application
July 31, 2020
Abstract Notification Deadlines
  1. Abstract acceptance notification
    (Notifications have been sent)
TBA, 2020
Support Notification Deadlines
  1. Financial support grant notification
TBA, 2020
Confirmation Deadlines
  1. Confirm your presentations and attendance
  2. Confirm your financial support acceptance
TBA, 2020
Registration fee refund deadline