Working Group 30: Assessment of Marine Environmental Quality of Radiation around the North Pacific
  • Acronym: WG 30
  • Parent Committee: MEQ
  • Term:
    Aug. 2013 - Dec. 2016
    Extended: Dec. 2016 - 2017 (GC Decisions 2016/S/11)
  • Co-Chairs:
    Kathryn A. Higley (kathryn.higley@oregonstate.edu)
    Yusheng Zhang (zhangyusheng@tio.org.cn)
Mission Statement

Marine ecosystems are impacted by multiple stressors (temperature, ocean acidification, hypoxia/eutrophication, etc.) which can affect ecosystem function, structure and dynamics in complex ways. An emerging question is: do changing patterns of radioactivity constitute an additional stressor to the ecosystem in the North Pacific? This question can be addressed by conceptual frameworks and low-order, process-based models that simulate the cycling of radionuclides through North Pacific environmental compartments. These results can be used by health physicists to predict radiological doses and by ecosystem scientists to explore hypotheses linking ecosystem dynamics to variability in the natural and anthropogenic radiation environments.

Terms of Reference
  1. Determine and compare radiological doses to North Pacific marine organisms, where data are available, from natural and anthropogenic radionuclides using existing data bases, newly acquired post-Fukushima monitoring results, and state-of-the-art dosimetric approaches.
  2. Examine the utility of applying natural and artificial (Fukushima and other sources) radionuclides as tracers of circulation, ecological transfers, biogeochemical cycling and consequences of climate change in the North Pacific, including the downstream interconnectivity.
  3. Determine the state of the science relative to assessment and mitigation of radiological impacts to marine organisms from natural and anthropogenic releases of radionuclides into the North Pacific marine environment, including a summary of peer reviewed literature and an overview of major sources and types of radiological releases into the marine environment.
  4. Foster collaboration with other expert groups, especially physical oceanographers and climate modellers, to achieve goals in items 1-3.
  5. Identify priority research requirements for knowledge gaps in items 1-3, the impacts on the marine environment from the planned expansion of nuclear facilities, other emerging nuclear issues and other sources of radionuclides in the PICES region.
  6. Promote collaboration in oceanographic studies using radio-tracer distributions and exchanging available information on environmental radioactivity, and encourage joint surveys/research among PICES member countries and international organizations.
  7. Contribute to FUTURE by producing a report on whether radioactive pollution is an additional stressor to the marine ecosystem in the North Pacific Ocean.
Products
Annual Meetings

Reports

2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013

Session and Workshop Summaries

PICES-2016:
W10, Distribution and risk analysis of radionuclides in the North Pacific

PICES-2015:
W5, Monitoring and assessment of environmental radioactivity in the North Pacific

PICES-2014:
S3, Tipping points: defining reference points for ecological indicators of multiple stressors in coastal and marine ecosystem:
Presentation by Yusheng Zhang

MEQ Paper Session
Presentations by John N. Smith, Galina S. Borisenko

PICES-2013:
MEQ Paper Session

Primary Journals
  1. Ambe D, Kaeriyama H, Shigenobu Y, Fujimoto K, Ono T, Sawada H, Saito H, Tanaka M, Miki S, Setou T. (2014). Five-minute resolved spatial distribution of radiocesium in sea sediment derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 138: 264-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.09.007

  2. Bezhenar R, Jung KT, Maderich V, Willemsen S, de With G, Qiao F. (2016). Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine oranisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods." Biogeosciences, 13(10):3021-30134.

  3. Bezhenar R, Jung KT, Maderich V, Kim KO. (2016). 3D numerical model of ecohydrodynamics for shallow waters. Journal of coastal research, 75:820-824. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI75-165.1

  4. Buesseler K, Dai M, Aoyama M, Benitez-Nelson C, Morris P. (2016). Transfer of radiocaesium from contaminated bottom sediments to marine organisms through benthic food chains in post-Fukushima and post-Chernobyl periods. Biogeosciences, 13(10): 3021-3034.

  5. Buesseler K, Dai M, Aoyama M, Benitez-Nelson C, Charmasson S, Higley K, Maderich V, Masqué P, Morris P J, Oughton D, Smith J N. (2016). Fukushima daiichi–derived radionuclides in the ocean: transport, fate, and impacts. Annual Review of Marine Science, 9(1): 1.1-1.31. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060733

  6. Fujimoto K, Miki S, Kaeriyama H, Shigenobu Y, Takagi K, Ambe D, Morita T. (2015). Use of otolith for detecting strontium-90 in fish from the harbor of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Environmental Science & Technology, 49(12): 7294-7301. https://doi.org/10.1021/es5051315

  7. Kaeriyama H, Fujimoto K, Ambe D, Shigenobu Y, Ono T, Tadokoro K, Okazaki Y, Kakehi S, Ito S, Narimatsu Y, Nakata K, Morita T & Watanabe T. (2015). Fukushima-derived radionuclides 134 Cs and 137Cs in zooplankton and seawater samples collected off the Joban-Sanriku coast, in Sendai Bay, and in the Oyashio region. Fisheries science, 81(1): 139-153.

  8. Kaeriyama H, Ambe D, Shimizu Y, Fujimoto K, Ono T, Yonezaki S, Watanabe T. (2013). Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. Biogeosciences, 10: 4287-4295.

  9. Kaeriyama H, Shimizu Y, Ambe D, Masujima M, Shigenobu Y, Fujimoto K, Ono T, Kou N, Taneda T, Kurogi H. (2014). Southwest intrusion of 134Cs and 137Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in the western North Pacific. Environmental science & technology, 48(6): 3120-3127. https://doi.org/10.1021/es403686v

  10. Kaeriyama H, Fujimoto K, Ambe D, Shigenobu Y, Ono T, Tadokoro K, Okazaki Y, Kakehi S, Ito S, Narimatsu Y, Nakata K, Morita T, Watanabe T. (2015). Fukushima-derived 134Cs and 137Cs in zooplankton and seawater samples collected off the Joban-Sanriku coast, in Sendai Bay, and the Oyashio region. Fisheries Science, 81: 139-153.

  11. Kaeriyama H, Shimizu Y, Setou T, Kumamoto Y, Okazaki M, Ambe D. Ono T. (2016). Intrusion of Fukushima-derived radiocaesium into subsurface water due to formation of mode waters in the North Pacific. Scientific Report 6, DOI: 10.1038/srep22010.

  12. Kaeriyama H. (2017). Oceanic dispersion of Fukushima-derived radioactive cesium: a review. Fisheries Oceanography, 26, 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12177

  13. Kaeriyama H, Fujimoto K, Inoue M, Minakawa M. (2020). Radiocesium in Japan Sea associated with sinking particles from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 222, 106348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106348

  14. Kakehi S, Kaeriyama H, Ambe D, Ono T, Ito S I, Shimizu Y. Watanabe T. (2016). Radioactive cesium dynamics derived from hydrographic observations in the Abukuma River Estuary, Japan. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 153: 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.11.015

  15. Kim SH, Hong GH, Lee HM, Cho BE. (2017). 210Po in the marine biota of Korean coastal waters and the effective dose from seafood consumption. Journal of environmental radioactivity, 174: 30-37.
    https://cyberleninka.org/article/n/1466219.pdf


  16. Kim SH, Lee HM, Lee SH, Kim I. (2019). Distribution and accumulation of artificial radionuclides in marine products around Korean Peninsula. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146: 521-531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.082

  17. Kim SH, Lee SH, Lee HM, Hong GH. (2020). Distribution of 239,240Pu in marine products from the seas around the Korean Peninsula after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 217:106191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106191

  18. Kumamoto Y, Yamada M, Aoyama M, Hamajima Y, Kaeriyama H, Nagai H, Yamagata T, Murata A, Masumoto Y. (2019). Radiocesium in North Pacific coastal and offshore areas within several months after the Fukushima accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 198: 79-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.12.015

  19. Li H, Wang L, Fan S, Zhang J, Li C. (2015). Research on Cosmic Rays Effect of X-γDose Rate Measurements in Water. Nuclear Electronics & Detection Technology, 35(10), 1014-1022.

  20. Lin W, Chen L, He J, Ma H, Zeng Z, Zeng S. (2013). Review on monitoring marine radioactivity since the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. China Environmental Science, 35(1): 269-276.

  21. Lin W, Chen L, Yu W, Ma H, Zeng Z, Lin J, Zeng S. (2015). Radioactivity impacts of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident on the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 102: 311-322.

  22. Lin W H, Chen L Q, Yu W, Ma H, Zeng Z, Zeng S. (2015). Radioactive source-term of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Science China: Earth Sciences, 45(12): 1875-1885.

  23. Maderich V, Bezhenar R, Heling R, With G D, Jung K T, Myoung J G, Cho Y K, Qiao F. Robertson L. (2014a). Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 131: 4-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.09.009

  24. Maderich V, Jung K T, Bezhenar R, With G D, Qiao F, Casacuberta N, Masque P. Kim Y. (2014b). Dispersion and fate of 90Sr in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. Science of the Total Environment, 494: 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.136

  25. Maderich V, Jung KT, Brovchenko I, Kim KO. (2017). Migration of radioactivity in multi-fraction sediments. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 17: 1207-1231.

  26. Maderich V, Bezhenar R, Tateda Y, Aoyama M, Tsumune D, Jung KT, de With G. (2018) The POSEIDON-R compartment model for the prediction of transport and fate of radionuclides in the marine environment. Methods X 5: 1251-1266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.10.002

  27. Men W, Deng F, He J, Yu W, Wang F, Li Y, Lin F, Lin J, Lin L, Zhang Y. (2017). Radioactive impacts on nekton species in the Northwest Pacific and humans more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 144: 601-610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.06.042

  28. Miki S, Fujimoto K, Shigenobu Y, Ambe D, Kaeriyama H, Takagi K, Ono T, Watanabe T, Sugisaki H, Morita T. (2016). Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs/90Sr activity ratios in marine fishes after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Fish. Oceanogr., 26: 221-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12182

  29. Nagao S, Otosaka S, Kaeriyama H. (2017). Preface; Radionuclides in coastal sediments after the accident of Fukushima Daichi Nuclear Power Plant: distribution, dynamics and fate. Journal of Oceanography, 73: 527.

  30. Nakata K, Sugisaki H. (2015). Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on fish and fishing grounds, Springer.

  31. Okamura H, Ikeda S, Morita T, Eguchi S. (2016). Risk assessment of radioisotope contamination for aquatic living resources in and around Japan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113(14): 3838-3843.

  32. Ono T, Ambe D, Kaeriyama H, Shigenobu Y, Fujimoto K, Sogame K, Watanabe T. (2015). Concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs bonded to the organic fraction of sediments offshore Fukushima, Japan. Geochemical Journal, 49(2), 219-227. https://doi.org/10.2343/geochemj.2.0351

  33. Shigenobu Y, Ambe D, Ono T, Fujimoto K, Morita T, Ichikawa T, Watanabe T. (2014). Radiocesium contamination of greenlings (Hexagrammos otakii) off the coast of Fukushima. Scientific Reports 4: 6851.

  34. Shigenobu Y, Ambe D, Ono T, Fujimoto K., Morita T, Ichikawa T, Watanabe T. (2016). Radiocesium contamination of aquatic organisms in the estuary of the Abukuma River flowing through Fukushima. Fish. Oceanogr., 26: 208-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/fog.12209

  35. Smith J N, Brown R M, Williams W J, Robert M, Nelson R. Moran S. (2015). Arrival of the Fukushima radioactivity plume in North American continental waters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(5): 1310-1315. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1412814112

  36. Smith, John N., Robin M. Brown, William J. Williams, Marie Robert, Richard Nelson, and S. Bradley Moran. (2015). Ocean current transport of Fukushima radioactivity to North America. CMOS Bulletin SCMO 43(2): 51-57.

  37. Smith J N, Rossi V, Buesseler K O, Cullen J T, Cornett J, Nelson R, Macdonald A M, Robert M, Kellogg J. (2017). Recent Transport History of Fukushima Radioactivity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Environmental Science & Technology 51(18): 10494-10502. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02712

  38. Su J, Yu W, Zeng Z, Ma H, Chen L, Cheng J. (2014). Monte Carlo calculation of artificial radionuclide radiation dose rates for marine species in the Western Pacific. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 158(4): 479-486. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/nct264

  39. Wada T, Nemoto Y, Shimamura S, Fujita T, Mizuno T, Sohtome T, Kamiyama K, Morita T, Igarashi S. (2016). Effects of the nuclear disaster on marine products in Fukushima: An update after five years. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 164: 312-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2016.06.028

  40. Wen Yu, Mathew P. Johansen, Jianhua He, Wu Men, Longshan Lin. (2018). Artificial radionuclides in neon flying squid from the northwestern Pacific in 2011 following the Fukushima. Biogeosciences, 15: 7235–7242. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-7235-2018

  41. Zhang J; Li H; Tuo X. (2019). In-situ measurement of artificialnuclides in seabed sediments based on Monte Carlo. Marine Technology Society Journal, 53(3), 16-22(7). https://doi.org/10.4031/MTSJ.53.3.1

  42. Zhao C, Wang G, Qiao F, Wang G, Jung K T, Xia C. (2013). Effects of the nuclear disaster on marine products in Fukushima. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 124: 246-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2013.05.008

  43. Zhao C, Wang G, Qiao F, Wang G, Jung K T, Xia C. (2015). A numerical investigation into the long-term behaviors of Fukushima-derived 137Cs in the ocean. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 34(12): 37-43.
Related Materials and Links

WG 30 brochure

Joint SCOR WG 146/PICES WG 30 review paper, Fukushima Daiichi–Derived radionuclides in the ocean: Transport, fate, and impacts. 2017. Annual Review of Marine Science 9: 173–203.

Report of Study Group on Radionuclide Science in the North Pacific Ocean

Study Group report
SCOR WG 146

Members as of Oct. 2017