Working Group 46: Joint PICES/ICES Working Group on Ocean Negative Carbon Emissions (ONCE)
Background, Goals and Motivations
Negative carbon emissions is an approach to the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 2.0° or perhaps even 1.5°C by the end of this century. The ocean has a large capacity to sequester carbon and has absorbed approximately 25% of the CO2 produced by fossil fuel combustion and cement production since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Ocean Negative Carbon Emission (ONCE) has the potential to contribute to negative emissions if the mechanisms and processes involved are properly understood.

The majority of the organic carbon in the ocean is in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which contains an amount of carbon equivalent to the total inventory of atmospheric CO2 and whose refractory component is a form of sequestered carbon in the ocean. The previous PICES/ICES joint WG-33 on “Climate Change and Biologically-driven Ocean Carbon Sequestration” highlighted the importance of microbial processes in the production of refractory DOM in the ocean, and identified a potential ONCE technique based on the naturally occurring microbial carbon pump. However, there is a gap between this natural process and its potential application. In addition, our knowledge of other ocean carbon sequestration mechanisms and processes, such as the solubility pump, carbonate pump and the different components of the biological carbon pump, limit their potential application for mitigating climate change.

The proposed new PICES/ICES joint Working Group will promote interdisciplinary exchange among different research communities by bringing together experts with backgrounds in science (biological, biogeochemical, chemical and physical oceanography) and engineering, to develop theoretical bases, provide guidelines, and evaluate the implementation of ONCE. The activities of the proposed WG will receive strong financial support from Xiamen University, China, and more funding is currently being sought from other Chinese sources. The WG members will use data from coastal and open ocean time- series and macrocosm facilities to assess proposed ocean negative carbon emission models. The WG has the long-term objective of providing advice for climate policy and practical implementation of ONCE for the scientific community, the public and governments.
Terms of Reference
The main objectives of this WG are to:
  • identify current knowledge gaps in negative carbon emission in the oceans; and,
  • propose future research directions and applications to the enhancement of negative carbon emissions including the items below:
    • Developing additional long-term time series stations to observe carbon sequestration in representative coastal and offshore waters;
    • Proposing integrated experimental studies to better understand carbon sequestration under paleo-, current and future oceanic conditions;
    • Proposing an international collaborative project or program dedicated to ocean negative carbon emission;
Expected Deliverables
  • Publish reviews, special sections and/or research papers to summarize and/or analyze the mechanisms and processes of negative carbon emission in the ocean;
  • Proposal for future research directions of negative carbon emissions;
  • Create a brief, clear, concise outreach product to communicate WG findings to a broader audience, especially the general public;
  • Produce a final report summarizing the results of the WG.
Annual Meetings


2022, 2021

Journal Papers
Cai, W. J., & Jiao, N. (2022).
Wastewater alkalinity addition as a novel approach for ocean negative carbon emissions.
The Innovation, 3(4), 100272

Liu, J., Robinson, C., Wallace, D., Legendre, L., & Jiao, N. (2022).
Ocean negative carbon emissions: A new UN Decade program. The Innovation, 3(5), 100302.
The Innovation, 3(5), 100302

Wang, Y., Lu, Y., Liu, J., & Zhang, C. (2022).
Advocating eco-engineering approach for ocean carbon negative emission.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version), 36(3), 279-287

Jiao, N. et al. (2020)
Microbes mediated comprehensive carbon sequestration for negative emission in the ocean.
National Science Review 7: 1858-1860.

Jiao, N. et al. (2021)
Excessive greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants by using the chemical oxygen demand standard Science China
Earth Science 65: 87-95.

Jiao, N. (2021)
Developing Ocean Negative Carbon Emission Technology to Support National Carbon Neutralization
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version) 36.

Wang, F. et al. (2021)
Technologies and perspectives for achieving carbon neutrality
The Innovation

  • Working Group 46 Membership (China) Drs. Jihua Liu, Jianfang Chen, Jingfeng Fan, and Rui Zhang are newly appointed members of the WG-46.
    4/6/2021 9:58:53 AM PST
  • Working Group 46 Membership (USA) Drs. Lihini Aluwihare and Galen McKinley are the newly appointed members of the WG-46.
    2/26/2021 3:39:08 PM PST
  • Working Group 46 Membership (Canada) Dr. Debby Ianson and Prof. Curtis Suttle are newly appointed members of the WG-46.
    2/3/2021 3:21:31 PM PST
  • Working Group 46 Membership (Russia) Dr. Pavel Tishchenko is a newly appointed member of the WG-46.
    2/2/2021 8:10:02 AM PST
  • New Working Group 46 Membership (Japan) Dr. Youhei Yamashita is a newly appointed member of the WG-46.
    12/22/2020 11:18:58 AM PST
Dr. Debby Ianson (WG-46)
Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Institute of Ocean Sciences
P.O. Box 6000
Sidney, BC
Canada V8L 4B2
(1-250) 363-6614
(1-250) 363-6690
Prof. Curtis Suttle (WG-46)
Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences
University of British Columbia
2020 – 2207 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC
Canada V6T 1Z4
Prof. Douglas W Wallace (WG-46)
WG-46 PICES Co-Chair
Dalhousie University
1355 Oxford Street, P.O. Box 15000
Halifax, NS
Canada B3H 4R2
Dr. Youhei Yamashita (WG-46)
Faculty of Environmental Earth Science
Hokkaido University
North 10 West 5, Kita-ku
Sapporo, Hokkaido
Japan 060-0810
Prof. Jianfang Chen (WG-46)
Laboratory of Marine Ecosystem Dynamics
Second Institute of Oceanography, MNR
36 Baochubei Rd.
Hangzhou, Zhejiang
People's Republic of China 310012
Dr. Jingfeng Fan (WG-46)
National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (NMEMC), MEE
42 Linghe St., Shahekou District,Dalian,Liaoning Province,China
Dalian, Liaoning
People's Republic of China 116023
Prof. Nianzhi Jiao (WG-46)
WG-46 PICES Co-Chair
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science
Xiamen University, Xiang-An Campus
Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres (IME),College of Ocean and Earth Sciences,A2-301, Zhoulongquan Building, Xiamen University (Xiang'an),No. 4221 Xiang'an South Road
Xiamen, Fujian
People's Republic of China 361102
(86-592) 2880199
Prof. Jihua Liu (WG-46)
Institute of Marine Science and Technology
Shandong University
72 Binhai Rd., Jimo District
Qingdao, Shandong
People's Republic of China 266237
Dr. Rui Zhang (WG-46)
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science
Xiamen University
A3-314 Zhoulongquan Bldg.
Xiamen, Fujian
People's Republic of China 361102
Prof. Jung-Ho Hyun (WG-46)
Department of Marine Science and Convergence Technology
Hanyang University
55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu
Ansan, Republic of Korea 15588
(82 10) 2365 6431
Dr. Pavel Ya. Tishchenko (CC-S, CREAMS-AP, WG-46)
Head, Hydrochemistry Laboratory
V.I. Il´ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute (POI), FEB RAS
43 Baltiyskaya St.
Vladivostok, Primorsky Kray
Russia 690041
(7-423)2 313-092
(7-423)2 312-573
Prof. Lihini Aluwihare (WG-46)
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Univ. of California San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
San Diego, CA
U.S.A. 92093-0244
Prof. Galen A. McKinley (WG-46)
Earth and Environmental Sciences
Columbia University / Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory
61 Route 9W
Palisades, NY
U.S.A. 10964-1707